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IJFNPH V4 N1 2011

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Article 7 (79-90): AN ASSESSMENT OF PRENATAL CARE RECEIVED BY MOTHERS WITH DIABETES MELLITUS Article 7 (79-90): AN ASSESSMENT OF PRENATAL CARE RECEIVED BY MOTHERS WITH DIABETES MELLITUS

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Date modified: 05/09/2011
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(79-90) AN ASSESSMENT OF PRENATAL CARE RECEIVED BY MOTHERS WITH DIABETES MELLITUS USING OUTCOME MEASURES: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY IN SOUTH EAST IDAHO

Aida Mohamed El-Asfahani, United Arab Emirates University, UAE

Abstract: The most commonly used standard for measuring prenatal care (PNC) adequacy is the “Kessner Index” which prescribes PNC for normal pregnancies in terms of the month of pregnancy care started, number of visits, and length of gestation. This index was adopted in this study to assess the effect intensity of PNC on the course of pregnancy and labor, as well as the ultimate delivery effect on mothers with pregestational diabetes mellitus (DM) whether type 1 or type 2 and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)). The study covered females who gave a singleton live birth at four major hospitals in Southeast Idaho (1996-1999). Maternal (n=110) retrospective information were analyzed. GDM is substantially more prevalent than prepregnancy DM. Subjects were classified according to “Kessner Index”; the majority of pregnant females received adequate care. The Mann-Whitney test revealed statistically significant differences in the Apgar scores due to PNC. Similar results were found in the number of newborn complications. The relationship between PNC and a reduction in maternal labor complications was inconclusive. Since a substantial proportion of pregnant women may not be aware of their diabetes or at risk for diabetes, early screening for all pregnant women, particularly women at their reproductive age is warranted.

Keywords: Prenatal care, Diabetes, Birth outcome

Article 6 (63-78): HEALTH STATUS, BLOOD PRESSURE AND DIETARY PATTERN Article 6 (63-78): HEALTH STATUS, BLOOD PRESSURE AND DIETARY PATTERN

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Date added: 05/09/2011
Date modified: 12/30/2012
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(63-78) HEALTH STATUS, BLOOD PRESSURE AND DIETARY PATTERN A PILOT STUDY AMONG EGYPTIAN ADOLESCENTS

Safaa T. Zaki, Salwa M. EL Shebini, Saneya A Wahba, Atiat M Arafa, N.H. El-Arabi, National Research Center, Egypt

Abstract: This pilot study was carried out to assess the nutritional status, blood pressure (B.P) and dietary intake of some school adolescents in Giza governorate, aiming to investigate the relationship between adolescent nutritional status and the development of diet related Diseases. 308 students were randomly chosen from 5 public secondary schools. Clinical examination, B.P, and anthropometric measurements were recorded. BMI was calculated. 24 hour dietary recall and socioeconomic questionnaires were filled by interviewing the students. The study revealed that 2.6% of the students were stunting, and by using weight/age and BMI parametres, 26.6%, 6.8% were obese The mean energy intake was below the RDA, with a wide range between low and high values among the three social groups. The mean daily intake of some vitamins &minerals were low. Over weight/obese and chronic undernourished students had mean B.P higher than normal weight. There was high positive correlation (p0.01) between both systolic and diastolic BP and most of the anthropometric measurements except for height when sexes were taken in consideration. In conclusion these data clarified the presence of both under and over nutrition among Egyptian adolescents and reinforce the association between both conditions and the elevated BP. Further more high salt consumption may be a common and important factor associated with the elevated blood Pressure.

Keywords: Adolescents, Anthropometry, dietary intakes, Blood pressure.

Article 5 (53-61): EPIDEMIOLOGY OF DIABETIC NEPHROPATHY IN THE POOR PATIENTS Article 5 (53-61): EPIDEMIOLOGY OF DIABETIC NEPHROPATHY IN THE POOR PATIENTS

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(53-61) EPIDEMIOLOGY OF DIABETIC NEPHROPATHY IN THE POOR PATIENTS FROM RURAL SOUTH-EAST INDIA

Mirza Raiullah Baig, Sayed Wasif Gillani and Sayed Azhar Sayed Sulaiman, University Saints Malysia (USM), Malysia
Devakonda Radha Krishna, Kakatiya University, India
K. Narayan, Mahatma Gandhi Memorial General Hospital, India

Abstract: Diabetic nephropathy has become a highly prevalent health problem in the poor patients. Left untreated, it progresses inexorably to greater levels of severity at variable rates. The aim of this study was to assess primary care processes and clinical characteristics of nephropathy with type2 diabetes in representative sample of Warangal city in south-east India who were receiving their routine treatment in government hospital. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain details on demography, occupation, family income, medical history, depression, physical activity, dietary pattern, laboratory test which includes blood glucose test, blood pressure, microalbuminuria test, etc. The prevalence of diabetic nephropathy in poor patients was found to be 17.14%. The first analysis was carried out using occupation and employment status as a marker for socio-economic status. About 80.6% and 69.9% patients were uneducated and unemployed respectively. Those who are employed, 88.3% of them had a monthly income of <100 US$. The frequency table for gender showed 59.2% of female patients with diabetic nephropathy. The study has revealed many risk factors found in these poor patients associated with the treatment adherence of diabetic nephropathy and were compared with the progression of microalbuminuria, which includes intake of crude alcohol & animal protein, tobacco chewing, smoking, poverty, poor medicine compliance. The treatment regimen in these patients showed a significant decrease of P< 0.05 in microalbuminuria with antihypertensive drugs like ACE Inhibitors and antidiabetic drugs like glibenclamide. These preliminary data suggest that prevalence of diabetic nephropathy in poor patients is increased due to lack of patient care and reduced quality of life. The data can be used as an excellent tool for local quality improvement and to advice the government on diabetic care in poor patients.

Keywords: Diabetic nephropathy, microalbuminuria, poor patients, medicine compliance.

Article 4 (39-51): EFFECT OF ALTITUDE ON MICROBIAL SUCCESSION DURING TRADITIONAL ENSET FER Article 4 (39-51): EFFECT OF ALTITUDE ON MICROBIAL SUCCESSION DURING TRADITIONAL ENSET FER

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Date added: 05/09/2011
Date modified: 12/30/2012
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(39-51) EFFECT OF ALTITUDE ON MICROBIAL SUCCESSION DURING TRADITIONAL ENSET (ENSETE VENTRICOSUM) FERMENTATION

Tariku Hunduma and Mogessie Ashenafi, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia

Abstract: Effect of altitude on microbial succession during traditional enset fermentation was determined at enset culture sites, 2908 (high altitude) and 2252 (mid altitude) meters above sea level. Counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria and lactic acid bacteria showed differences between the study sites. The warmer temperature of the fermenting mass at the mid altitude site contributed to the rapid proliferation of microorganisms and rapid fermentation process and hence shorter fermentation time (112 days) than at the high altitude site (142 days). The microorganisms isolated from traditional enset fermentation process, at both sites were similar. Bacillus spp. and Lactic acid bacteria dominated the fermentative microflora at the initial and later stages of the fermentation, respectively. The coliforms and other members of enterobacteriaceae contributed to initial lowering of the pH of the fermenting mass. At about day 15, the homofermentative lactobacilli took over the process and dominated the flora till the end of fermentation. Following the proliferation of the lactobacilli, the pH decreased and titratable acidity increased. Count of yeasts remained low throughout the fermentation process. The coliforms and enterobacteriaceae were undetectable following domination of the microflora by LAB. The decline in moisture content of the fermenting mass was relatively faster at the mid altitude than at the high altitude site. Some Gram-negative rods and other Gram-positive cocci were occasionally encountered at lower levels. Almost all isolates were amylolytic than proteolytic and lipolytic due to high carbohydrate content of the substrate. This study showed there could be differences in microbial succession from place to place depending on various factors.

Keywords: Ensete ventricosum, fermentation, LAB, altitude

Article 3 (31-38): MID-UPPER ARM, CHEST AND HEAD CIRCUMFERENCE CUT-OFF POINTS AND EQUATIONS Article 3 (31-38): MID-UPPER ARM, CHEST AND HEAD CIRCUMFERENCE CUT-OFF POINTS AND EQUATIONS

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(31-38) MID-UPPER ARM, CHEST AND HEAD CIRCUMFERENCE CUT-OFF POINTS AND EQUATIONS FOR IDENTIFYING LOW BIRTH WEIGHT IN EGYPT

Manal A. Mohsen, Mai M. Youssef, Safaa T. Zaki, National Research Center, Egypt
Maha M. El-Shamy, Al-Mataria Teaching Hospital, Egypt

Abstract: Because of the prevalent resource-poor settings during deliveries in developing countries, few anthropometric surrogates have been suggested to identify low birth weight (LBW < 2500 grams) babies. The WHO reported that validity of mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC) and chest circumference (CHC) as well as its cut-off points for identifying LBW babies varied across the nations and ethnic groups. This study was conducted to identify the anthropometric cutoff points suitable for detecting LBW in Egypt. A prospective cross-sectional study including 129 full term newborns was carried out. Thirteen percent newborns were found LBW. Birth weight, length, MUAC, CHC and head circumference (HC) were recorded. MUAC, CHC and HC were found to be highly correlated with the birth weight. The best correlation observed was between birth weight and MUAC (r = 0.673, P < 0.001). The best discriminator of LBW, as detected by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, was the MUAC. This study showed that birth weight = - 433.880 + (331.706 MUAC). The MUAC cut-off point value of < 9 cm had the highest sensitivity and specificity for identifying LBW, followed by the CHC < 31 cm and lastly the HC < 32 cm. Linear regression models evoked the following 3-anthropometeric-component equation as the most predictive mean for birth weight calculation: “Birth Weight = 199.507 MUAC+ 77.633 HC + 61.446 CHC – 3610.071”.

Keywords: low birth weight; anthropometry; mid-upper-arm circumference; chest circumference; head circumference; Egypt.