IJFNPH V5 N4 2012
Ameliorative effect of m. Forsskalei grains extract on CCL4 – induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in rats
Eman M. Abd El-Azeem, Ain Shams University, Egypt
Hessa M. El-mezafer, DMM University, Saudi Arabia
Hessa M. El-mezafer, DMM University, Saudi Arabia
Purpose: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of M. forsskalei (traditional use in Saudi Arabia). Many herbs have been used as natural remedies for the prevention and/or treatment of liver diseases. Various herbs and herbal products are believed to have liver protective functions and are widely used in clinical practice.
Design/methodology/approach: CCl4 continues to provide an important model substance to elucidate the mechanisms of action of hepatotoxic and oxidative stress effects. Rats were pretreated with aqueous extracts of the grains of M. forsskalei.
Findings: Pretreatment of rats with aqueous extract of the grains of M. forsskalei in multiple doses (50 and 100 mg/kg b.w. for 60 days) significantly prevented the CCl4 induced hepatic damage as indicated by the serum marker enzymes (AST, ALT and LDH). It also prevented CCl4-induced oxidative stress in the rats’ liver by inhibiting lipid peroxidation (MDA) and restoring the levels of antioxidant enzyme (SOD) and glutathione.
Originality/value: Our results suggest that M. forsskalei effectively prevents liver injury, mainly through down regulation of oxidative stress.
Keywords: M. forsskalei, Hepatoprotective, Lipid profile, Oxidative stress
A globalized context of traditional healing practices in Botswana
Barbara N. Ngwenya,Okavango Research Institute (ORI), Botswana
Kerstin Andrae-Marobela, University of Botswana and Centre for Scientific Research, Indigenous Knowledge & Innovation (CesrIKi), Botswana
Keitseng N. Monyatsi, African Regional Intellectual Property Organization (ARIPO), Zimbabwe
Harriet Okatch, University of Botswana, Botswana
Audrey Masizana-Katongo, University of Botswana, Botswana
Mbaki Muzila, University of Botswana, Botswana
Purpose: This study examines how the globalized context of healers shape traditional healthcare systems in Botswana with regard to the diverse spectrum of global technologies, global epidemics and patients.
Design/methodology/approach: A participatory exploratory study design was chosen combined with a multiple approach to data collection and analysis using consultative and report-back workshops, individual interviews and focusgroup discussions.
Findings: Whereas 75 per cent of traditional healers were village-based, 89 per cent of their clients either originated from within or outside of Botswana. Traditional healer’s training was found to be a lifelong learning. The traditional healthcare profession is shaped by many influences that characterise the global world. Most traditional healers recognized HIV and AIDS as a “new” global disease to which they had to adapt. Forty-six per cent of healers owned mobile phones, which are used to contact national and international patients, demonstrating the use of modern information technology.
Originality/value: Contrary to common perceptions of traditional healthcare systems as only locally defined, this study presents findings that traditional healing is shaped by and shapes a global health context.
Keywords: Traditional medicine, Traditional healers, Globalization
Do public health messages impact on knowledge, diet and lifestyle choices of women during pregnancy?
Cathryn Salisbury, University of Westminster, UK
Claire Robertson, University of Westminster, UK
Claire Robertson, University of Westminster, UK
Purpose: This paper summarises the scientific rationale supporting the need to promote healthy diet and lifestyle choices during pregnancy and describes a pilot study assessing the impact of public health messages on diet quality and lifestyle choices among a population of pregnant women.
Design/methodology/approach: 18 women (ages 21–46 years) in their second trimester of pregnancy completed an online questionnaire entitled “Your Health in Pregnancy”.
Findings: Results found that knowledge of the roles of specific nutrients important in pregnancy—folic acid 89%, iron 72%, vitamin D 78%, calcium 100%—were higher than those gained for translating knowledge into practical ‘food-based’ skills, i.e., identifying food sources of the same (folic acid 61%, iron 83%, Vitamin D 67% and calcium 94%).
Practical implications: Women are aware of public health messages during pregnancy but are inconsistent when translating knowledge into behaviour change. Encouraging positive changes requires a greater understanding of complexities of factors which influence dietary and health choices.
Keywords: Diet quality, Nutrition, Pregnancy, Nutrients, Public health messages, Physical activity, Healthcare professionals
Food advertising watched by adolescent girls in Saudi Arabia
Elham Al-Jaaly, King Abdul-Aziz University, Saudi Arabia, and University College London (UCL), UK
Purpose: To explore the nature and contents of food advertisements aired on popular television channels most watched by Jeddah adolescent girls.
Design/methodology: The content of 288 hours of television programming was videotaped in 2009. All product advertisements were abstracted from the programmes and analysed quantitatively in terms of frequency, duration, type, means and ways of delivering the message to the viewers. Foods advertised were classified as food/beverages high in fat, salt/sugar (HFSS) and non-HFSS foods according to the nutrient profiling model described by the Food Standards Agency (FSA-UK, 2005).
Results/findings: Saudi adolescent girls (13-18 years) could watch up to 21-aired product advertisements for every hour they watch TV and these adverts amounted to 9.6. Food and drink-related products accounted for roughly 18% (n=1106) of advertising exposure (n=6,272), and 70% of food adverts were for HFSS products. No significant difference (P=0.26) in the duration of adverts for non-HFSS (3.53 hours) and HFSS (3.43 hours) was found. It was noted that HFSS food advertisements were mostly presented by young adult actors, and the use of persuasive methods such as presenting food adverts with identification of sponsorship, price incentives, free gifts and celebrity endorsement was higher for food products targeting young audiences than those targeting adult audiences (P<0.001).
Social implications: The study revealed that adolescent girls are exposed to a plethora of food advertising that promotes unhealthy eating. This could have an impact on their diets and long term health outcomes and therefore warrant further evaluation.
Originality/value: The study presents the first descriptive analysis of television advertising viewed by Saudi adolescent girls; other studies in the region have not collected and analysed the data processed here. The results emphasize the central role and obligation of decision makers in protecting young consumers through tightening legislation and controlling media contents (particularly food adverts) targeting young people.
Keywords: Adolescents, Teenagers, Food advertisements, Food marketing and commercials, High Fat, Salt and Sugar - HFSS
New approaches for correcting zinc deficiency without zinc fortification
Barbara F. Harland, Howard University, USA
Donald Oberleas, Texas Tech University, USA
Purpose: Emphatically state that zinc deficiency is the most prevalent nutritional deficiency worldwide. Introduce the Phytate:Zinc Molar Ratio as a tool for predicting zinc deficiency. To introduce the consequences or degree of severity of zinc deficiency and the ease of assessing the deficiency by measuring zinc and phytate intakes, performing the appropriate calculations, and collecting quantifiable data. To provide evidence that the use of a naturally-occurring fungus will, when added to the diet, hydrolyze the phytate, rendering it harmless, and releasing the bound minerals, especially zinc for absorption into the body.
Design/methodology/approach: Obtain the Phytate:Zinc Molor Ratio of a variety of foods using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AASpec).
Findings: Any food with a Phytate:Zinc Molar Ratio greater than 10 contributes to zinc deficiency.
Originality/value: Introducing a new tool – the Phytate:Zinc Molar Ratio – for estimating and predicting zinc deficiency in animals and humans.
Keywords: Zinc, Phytate, Phytase, Deficiency, Growth, Phytate:Zinc Molar Ratio, Nutrition
Production of a diacylglycerol-enriched safflower oil using lipasecatalyzed glycerolysis: optimization by response surface methodology
Sayed Mohammad Sahafi, Sayed Amir Hossein Goli and Mahdi Kadivar, Isfahan University of Technology, Iran
Purpose: This study aimed to develop a model for producing diacylglycerols (DAGs) in safflower oil. Oils with a high diacylglycerol (1,3-DAG) content have attracted considerable attention due to their favourable effects in preventing many diseases. There are valid scientific reports on the effects of diacylglycerol oil in preventing the accumulation of body fat and obesity, increased sensitivity of cells to insulin, reduced sodium concentration in the blood, LDL and cholesterol and blood pressure in people with atherosclerotic disease.
Design/methodology/approach: In this study, 1,3-DAG was synthesized from safflower oil using the glycerolysis reaction in a solvent-free system with lipozyme TL IM as a biocatalyst. A D-optimal design was used to model and optimize the reaction conditions. Evaluation of the resulting model enabled the determination of optimal reaction conditions for glycerolysis, aiming at a high DAG yield. The glycerolysis reaction was optimized with four factors of temperature, time, molar ratio of glycerol to oil and enzyme percentage.
Findings: The DAG content of the product was dependent on all parameters examined except reaction temperature. DAG formation increased with in-creasing substrate ratio and decreasing enzyme load and reaction time. The highest DAG production was 52% (w/w, on the basis of total fat) and optimal conditions were found to be 0.75% enzyme, 5.3 g glycerol, a temperature of 46.9 °C and a reaction time of 4 h. In these conditions, after purification, DAG content increased to 53.84. The content of sn-1,3-DAG was higher than that of sn-1,2-DAG (70:30) under all reaction conditions.
Keywords: Safflower oil, Lipozyme TL IM, Glycerolysis, Diacylglycerol oil